In recent years, the social from all walks of life to ensure that the elevator use safety gave full attention, on the daily maintenance of elevator management conducted in-depth discussions, but to ensure the maintenance of elevator use safety construction process of safety management, little has been mentioned. In fact, negative events during elevator maintenance and construction are often reported in the press.
Weihai city in shandong province on August 14, 2013, a car mechanic repair in a hotel in cargo elevator door, upper body accidentally stuck in the door of the car and in the crevice between the wall and cause mechanic chest 8 ribs and left a broken arm.
On July 31, 2013, a maintenance worker was killed when an elevator suddenly went up during maintenance in a residential community in chaoyang district, Beijing, after his head was clamped.
On May 14, 2013, in a department within a shopping center in yichang of hubei, automatic sidewalk accident, because the night before last overhaul dismantled a pedal failed to timely installation recovery is enabled, leading to an old man ready to enter the supermarket shopping on an empty, fell ladder inside road, died.
On May 13, 2012, four or five people, including patients, were trapped in the emergency elevator of a hospital in hangzhou city, zhejiang province during maintenance.
On March 29, 2012, an old man fell down in the bottom pit of an elevator in a community in hangzhou city, zhejiang province without protective barriers.
It can be seen that the construction safety accidents (or safety incidents) during elevator maintenance are not rare and should be paid enough attention. In this paper, the author tries to analyze the construction safety factors that influence the maintenance process of elevator, hoping to provide references for the safety management in the industry.
1. Regulatory requirements
The elevator maintenance, usually the elevator using units with appropriate qualifications entrusted by the elevator production units, in the form of contract of service, in the elevator for regular monitoring and inspection, regular cleaning, lubrication, adjustment of the elevator, replacement parts and check the daily maintenance work and raises a gender, etc. The maintenance and maintenance construction of elevator refers to the on-site operation of the elevator production unit to the above work, which is part of the maintenance and management of elevator. Safety management of elevator maintenance and construction and related regulations and safety specifications are described as follows.
(1) the law of the People's Republic of China special equipment safety "article 45 provisions:" the elevator maintenance units shall be strictly implemented in the maintenance of security requirements of technical specification, ensure the maintenance of elevator safety performance, and is responsible for the implementation of the safety protection measures to ensure construction safety."
(2) article 5 of the regulations on safety supervision of special equipment stipulates: "the production and use units of special equipment shall establish and improve the safety management system of special equipment and the position safety responsibility system. The principal responsible person of the unit that produces and USES special equipment shall be fully responsible for the safety and security of the unit's special equipment. According to article 32, "the daily maintenance of elevator units shall be strictly implemented in the maintenance of national security requirements of technical specification, ensure the maintenance of elevator safety technical performance, and is responsible for the implementation of the safety protection measures to ensure construction safety."
(3) the TSG T5001-2009 "the elevator operation management and maintenance regulations stipulated in article 5:" using unit shall, according to the elevator safety technical specifications and the requirements of the product's installation maintenance manual and the actual use of and maintenance organization." Article 10: "the safety management personnel of the user unit shall perform the following duties (7) supervise the installation, renovation, maintenance and maintenance of the elevator, and sign and confirm the maintenance records of the maintenance unit.
(4) the law of the People's Republic of China special equipment safety "article 57:" responsible for special equipment safety supervision and management of department, in accordance with the provisions of special equipment production, management, use the unit and the inspection and testing institutions responsible for the supervision and inspection."
The above regulations and safety codes explicitly pointed out that, the elevator maintenance construction safety management. By using the unit of organization and implementation of supervision, maintenance units responsible for the construction safety, special equipment safety supervision and administration department responsible for the supervision and inspection.
2 management status
2.1 the responsibility of the user is not fulfilled
Some units use safety awareness is not enough, only exists in a elevator maintenance system, fail to effective implementation, there is not enough the elevator safety management personnel, think to sign the contract and pay the premium in just a matter, all subsequent administrative matters shall be the responsibility of the maintenance unit, ignoring the management and the safety of using link to organize, supervise the maintenance of the related responsibility. (1) the elevator in use will be affected by environment condition, normal wear and tear, improper use of the elevator facilities damage factors, such as the lack of the dynamic information collecting, sorting, you can't make the elevator maintenance construction target, difficult to do to the quick, safe and effective. (2) with the elevator maintenance construction may extend to use area, need to coordinate the relationship between the construction and use, reasonable scheduling, can avoid to use and maintain the construction of the cross, to prevent the owner into the construction area caused the elevator accident or tiring event. (3) some extensive unit using management, lack of the supervision of the construction process and the construction process of temporary electricity, open flames, etc., do not let the construction unit to control and warning, related to the area being used for the construction of protection facilities setting to remind, easily buried safe hidden trouble. (4) lack of a sound emergency rescue plan, it is believed that the safety supervision of the maintenance construction process has been relaxed since no safety accident occurred in the elevator. When an accident occurs, the emergency rescue, emergency rescue and rescue cannot be organized in a timely manner, all of which bring safety hazards to the use of elevators and maintenance construction.
2.2 the principal responsibility of production safety is lax
To flourish in the elevator, to participate in the activities of maintenance production units is also developing rapidly, but the elevator installation and maintenance personnel growth can't keep up with the increase of the number of the elevator, technical resources, market demand and talents competition in the market consequences lead to maintenance behavior is not standard, some maintenance units to relax the safety management of the maintenance process. (1) the daily maintenance elevator professional skill is high, the risk is big, many people are reluctant to engage in this industry, and so some small elevator production unit in the society to find some social or temporary hired personnel, or affiliated in other company name to carry out the maintenance business, maintenance staff personal skills is not stable, weak technical force of the maintenance team. Usually these temporary maintenance personnel knowledge, know a single elevator variety, in the face of all kinds of elevator when things do not understand, do not eliminate the fault in time, for their work in the maintenance of the lack of the sense of responsibility, often perfunctory or irregularities, easily lead to a tragedy. (2) because the market access conditions is not high, participate in market activity unit is more, competition is intense, some production units take low-cost means of competition, to reduce the dimension of the premium with the fight for the market, the result can only be compressed management fees, lack of necessary for maintenance personnel technical training and safety education. The security personnel of the maintenance personnel are rushed to work before they have fully grasped the common sense of safety. The necessary safety protection supplies can be saved, and the security management of the maintenance personnel is seriously missing. (3) due to the intrinsic characteristics of elevators, maintenance personnel are door-to-door service, although very multidimensional insurance unit for maintenance staff has some specific job requirements, also ration some safety protection articles, but neglect the construction process of safety management, in the custody or package. Maintenance personnel d may also have the use of the characteristics of units used, the timely communication with the unit using, site maintenance in a hurry, set up complete safety protection facilities was not in a hurry to start, causes the owner into maintenance or maintenance personnel construction region is hurt.
2.2 lack of on-site supervision
Elevator maintenance management of columns to use, use the unit responsible for the organization and management, the elevator maintenance construction and maintenance of the unit at the scene of the elevator using production activities, production units responsible for production safety. The supervision and management of elevator maintenance construction process is applicable to on-site safety supervision. Although government regulators which introduced some elevator used in recent years related to maintenance management method, but it is more of a stay at the macro level, the maintenance is important in the regulation and standardize the behavior of no specific measures, there are still some problems in practical inspection: (1) usually county, city bureau of special equipment safety supervision personnel set up only a few names, bear the jurisdiction/tens of thousands of sets of special equipment supervision, supervision strength is not enough, the elevator maintenance construction supervision, how to spot check the system construction of units used separately according to the proportion and the qualification of construction unit, maintenance records, such as inspection way, on-site safety supervision coverage and strength is limited. (2) the production activities of the elevator maintenance is subject to the use of the elevator, causing the uncertainty of the maintenance schedule and maintenance construction involves the technical difficulties and workload, and have not reached the elevator construction category must start to inform, regulators to maintenance construction process may be in a state of knowledge, also to increase difficulty to the site safety supervision. (3) with the rapid increase in the number of elevators and the development of elevator technology, higher technical supervision capacity is required objectively. But some supervisory personnel professional and technical knowledge of elevator, maintenance and safety operation procedures such as understanding is limited, the supervisory team failed to with 倶 into technical ability construction, the maintenance construction process can only be played down the real-time sampling, stay in some macro inspection, it is not all of the elevator maintenance safety management, restricted the effect of site safety supervision.
3 Suggestions and countermeasures
In view of the importance of safety management in elevator maintenance construction process to implement elevator maintenance system, the following aspects should be strengthened.
3.1 strengthen the safety management of the construction process of maintenance and maintenance units
(1) the safety of elevator maintenance and construction process depends on the management of the construction unit. Elevator there are big risks in the process of maintenance and construction, the construction unit should take the production safety responsibility, safety standards in the implementation of the provisions of the state of the at the same time, the introduction of risk management, risk identification, identify facing the complex environment and the internal and external risks, the severity of the risk analysis, risk for serious evaluation to the targeted measures, the risk to a minimum. Use and maintenance of elevators are inevitable conditions of use, service people, elevator production quality, maintenance level, corporate financing, and other factors. Crash damage may occur in the construction process, mechanical injury, electric injury, construction tools, falling from a height of construction wastes may blow damage, etc. After identifying the source of risk, preventive measures should be formulated. First ask the elevator maintenance are through relevant department of professional and technical construction personnel training, examination qualified after a "special equipment operator certificate", to use the maintenance instructions for the elevator guide to establish "construction plan (including security measures)" I a professional construction personnel mount guard before safety education, to enter the construction site, safety disclosure and technical disclosure, after finishing the above procedures, use of helmets, seat belts and other protective equipment as required. Maintenance construction, on-site with the corresponding project the operator of the special equipment operating personnel license shall not be less than 1 person, in order to look after each other, guardianship and supervision and construction of the key process and special process of form a complete set of facilities and protective equipment, construction personnel are to be self-checking and ZhuanJian, supervision and implementation process. In addition, the production unit should also carry out safety inspection on the loss of power tools and protective equipment on time, and carry out regular inspection on the implementation of safety standards for maintenance and construction. The formulation and implementation of the above measures can effectively reduce the construction risk.
(2) maintenance units should strengthen industry self-discipline, actively create a benign and orderly competition atmosphere and promote the healthy development of the industry. We will establish peer associations, formulate trade conventions and restrict the bad behaviors of individual maintenance and maintenance institutions. (2) according to the local artificial factors, such as salary, transportation organization elevator maintenance cost accounting advisory services, to avoid the vicious behavior of heavy discounting, promote fair competition, technical guarantee high-quality service concept. As to strengthen the communication between elevator users and maintenance and maintenance units, both parties should clearly define their respective safety responsibilities, so as to facilitate maintenance and maintenance technical services in accordance with relevant legal regulations. Objective to improve the quality of in-service maintenance personnel by means of internal training, overseas study and other professional skills and safety knowledge training. For areas with a large gap in maintenance personnel, special courses for elevator installation and maintenance can be set up in conjunction with local vocational training schools to train professionals.
(3) the maintenance unit shall formulate emergency measures and rescue plans for elevators of different categories (types) of maintenance insurance, and conduct at least one emergency drill every six months. Field d danger, should be timely communication with the unit using, avoid to use ladder peak and ensure maintenance on-site safety warning, setting up effective safety protection facilities, to prevent the user into the construction area, or take measures to prevent the maintenance of elevator misused.
3.2 implement the maintenance management system and perform the responsibilities of organization and supervision
(1) the user shall strengthen the sense of responsibility of the user, implement the maintenance management system, and ensure the necessary investment for the safe operation of the elevator. Selection scale, technical ability, management more perfect, adapted to the elevator level qualification units of production maintenance contract, or the holder of the elevator safety management personnel, strengthen the daily patrol elevator running, found the problems timely organization ruled out. Establish a maintenance fund system to ensure the needs of elevator vulnerable parts, consumables and labor costs, and reduce the risk of operation safety and maintenance safety.
(2) establish post responsibility system as the core of the elevator use and operating and safety management system, safety education and training of elevator safety management personnel, make them on the elevator operation principle, safety accessories and specific parts, common troubleshooting methods have a certain understanding, to the abnormal situation of elevator running on real records and effective supervision of maintenance construction. Promote the maintenance artifacts do meticulous in place.
(3) according to the elevator running status, the owner requirements, the use of the environment, the elevator varieties, parts service life, etc, together with the maintenance unit maintenance plan and arrange for maintenance time and supervision personnel arrangement, reduce the stop time, improve the efficiency of maintenance. The maintenance of the elevator process, good owner guidance, notification and other coordination and organization work, to prevent the elevator in the owner's uninformed misuse, misoperation.
(4) conduct emergency rescue drills to train the actual combat capability of rescue teams and improve the efficiency of handling elevator faults or accidents.
3.3 strengthen on-site supervision and standardize maintenance and construction activities
(1) establish the maintenance monitoring and inspection mechanism and strengthen on-site safety supervision. Will examine on the scene the elevator maintenance construction safety supervision of the random sample, adopt the method of raids, the construction scheme and construction personnel qualifications for on-site review, combined unit maintenance system implementation and maintenance of qualifications, maintenance records, such as macroscopic inspection, check the maintenance construction safety management system to carry out the situation, and will check the results included in the assessment of the implementation of production safety responsibility.
(2) the fail to TSG T5001-2009 and the relevant safety technical specifications and to meet the requirements of the elevator product installation maintenance manual maintenance plan formulation, loss of production safety management system seriously, passengers casualties or the serious damage to the maintenance of the unit, a downgrade or cancel the production license certificate.
(3) strengthen the training and learning of basic elevator knowledge and safety technical specifications of inspectors, master the professional knowledge required for law enforcement, and improve the technical law enforcement capability. We will strengthen the construction of a supervisory system, appropriately allocate supervisory personnel and mobilize the enthusiasm of supervisory personnel so as to improve the effectiveness of on-site safety supervision.
3.4 establish elevator liability insurance and effectively control construction risks
Article 17 of the special equipment safety law of the People's Republic of China clearly stipulates: "the state encourages the insurance of special equipment safety liability insurance to guide the use and daily maintenance of elevators